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یکشنبه 7 آذر 1400
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Materials and procedure of producing cement

Introduction:

It is an ordinary and inevitable issuethat the population growth increases the demands forresidential, official, sport and training areas. The constructions as initial construction of buildings, restoration, temporary reconstruction and full restoration require technical knowledge, standard materials, skilled executive groups and up-to-date expertise. And since concrete is one of the significant materials in construction, its production condition, raw materials, and most importantly cement ant its alternatives in producing the concreteshould be studied technically and scientifically in order to improve the concrete and its strength and to reduce the expenses.  Producing cement in this way is an attempt to improve the society.  Applying it intentionally engineers and those involved in construction the country would achieve better results. This demands more basic supervising in this area, planning and setting appropriate goals in all production and distribution stages of this product. 

Raw Materials:

Cement, a soft power which absorbs water and sticks the rubble, is made up of the heated and molten mixture of calcium oxide, oxides of silicon, aluminum and iron. Its mortar gradually hardens in the air or under water and simultaneously keeps its volume and strength. Lime materials are the main ones used in construction industry. Lime cements are formed by silicate and Lime aluminate compounds which exist both naturally and are produced in cement factories. Usually four mixtures are considered as man constitutes of cement: 3 calcium silicate, 2 calcium silicate, 3 calcium aluminate and 4calcium aluminoferrite that 2 main cement silicate compounds C3S and C2S are them factors for the cement to harden. There are some other constitutes in cement which are not remarkable regarding the weigh but have considerable influence on the characteristics of cement which are mostly MgO, TiO2, Mn2O3, K2o and NaO2. The real amounts and sizes of the oxides are various in different mixtures of cement. 

Production stages:

Cement is produced by grinding raw materials as stone, quicklime, alumina and silica which exist as clay or clay rocks, mixing them in certain amounts and heating them in rotary kilns up to about 1400 degrees centigrade. At this stage, the materials are turn into almost black lumps in the kilns which are called clinker.  After cooling, clinker is mixed and grinded with gypsum to adjust its hardening rate and a grey powder is produced which is the Portland cement. Based on thedifferent types and qualities of raw materials, cement is produced in two main “wet and dry” procedures. Though there are some other procedures, today dry procedure is often used in producing cement except for the cases that the raw material requires the wet procedure since in the dry way less energy is needed. 

Quality Control Laboratories

Due to the sensitive use of cement in constructing buildings as bridges, dams, waterfronts, houses, roads and so on, conducting quality control experiments in its producing is essential and significant. These quality control experiments are carried out in different stages of production such as testing the consumed raw materials in the factory and controlling kiln raw material, the clinker and the cement. 

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