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یکشنبه 7 آذر 1400
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Cement History in Iran

Cement History in Iran


Historical studies demonstrate that Iranians like Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans were able to make watery mortars which could tolerate pressure and remain integratedwhile coming into contact with water. Remaining works as huge dams and bridges in different parts of Iran like IzadKHoost Dam which is the world’s first arch dam, Karkhe Dam and Shadravan Dam make sure that Iranians have been familiar with Hydraulic properties of quicklime a long time ago. Romans learned to heat the quicklime from Greeks and Greeks learned it from Iranians since the oldest quicklime mortars were found in Iran. Chinese also knew how to heat the quicklime and used quicklime mortar in building the Great Wall of China 2000 years ago, but Iranian mortars are much older.
The inhabitants of the northern regions of the Persian Gulf used a kind of Sarooj with remarkable Hydraulic properties and high resistance. The most well-known one of these Saroojes is Sarooj paste which is made in Bandar-e-Khamir; the port installations made of this kind of mortar still remained in some parts of Lengeh and Booshehr ports. 
The first cement factory in Iran was established in Shar-e-ray near Tehran in 1312 with the capacity of 100 tons per day. By the passage of time and increase in the demands for this product new factories were needed. Therefore in 1314 another factory with the capacity of 200 tons was bought, built in 1315 and put into use in 1316. 

Common Cements in Iran

Type 1:this type of cement which is also called Ordinary Portland Cement is used for the cases where specific properties of cement are not required.  It exists more than the other types. This type is used to build pavements, road surfaces, bridges, railroads, water pipe vessels and in building mortars. Generally it can be used in all the cases where it is not in contact with sulfates and the cement hydration heat does not increase the inappropriate temperature of the concrete.  
Type 2: this type of cement is of higher quality and is used where caution is should be exercised against the moderate sulfates.  This type of cement is usually harden slower than the first type and gives of less heat during hydration so It can be used in huge buildings.
Type 3:this type gains strength in a short time i.e. a week or less. Its 7 day compressive strength is almost equal to types I 28 day compressive strength. It gives of more heat during hydration in than the first type.  It is used when fast turnover of molds is needed and in cold weather to lessen the time of protecting the concrete. Although using a mixture with a larger amount of cement with type1, we can produce a type concrete which strengthens sooner, type 3 does it better and is more economical. This type of cement is also called rapid hardening cement. 
Type 4: this type gives of a very low amount of heat while hardening and it is used where the amount and intensity of the produced heat is significant. The strength of the concrete which is made ofraises slowly in other words it hardens later. The main use of this type of cement is in constructing huge concrete buildings. In huge concrete building such as concrete bridges because of the great amount of the concrete the heat resulting from the hardening can be very dangerous. For lessening the heat degree of the cement, type 4 is used which is also called late hardening cement. 
Type 5: cement type 5 or anti-sulfate cement is used when concrete is closely exposed to sulfates. It is mainly used when the soil or the water which is in contact whit the concrete building contains a great amount of sulfate minerals cement type 5 hardens slower than ordinary cement. 

طراحی و پیاده سازی : پورتال ساز